Dr. Sieg Snapp

Sieg PicProfessor Sieg Snapp is a soils and cropping systems ecologist at Michigan State University and Associate Director of the Center for Global Change and Earth Observations. She has edited two books and published more than a 100 journal articles and extension bulletins on integrated nutrient management, ecological intensification, agricultural systems, and participatory action research. Her research interests include international agricultural system design for a changing climate and understanding processes that can be harnessed for sustainable production. She has pioneered the development of multipurpose crops for food and environmental security, including the first agronomic reports on perennial wheat and perennial pigeonpea.

Dr. Snapp has extensive experience in the use of participatory action research and extension, and a commitment to co-learning, from the Upper Midwest to Southern Africa. She is possibly best known for being the ‘mother’ of the mother and baby trial design, as a means to support participatory research, communication and innovation.



Areas of expertise: Agrobiodiversity, Agroecology, Agronomy,  Extension, Modeling, Soil Science, Sustainability Science



Snapp, S.S. and B. Pound (Eds.) 2008. Agricultural Systems: Agroecology and Rural Innovation for Development. Academic Press. 380 pp.

Pound, B., S.S. Snapp, C. McDougal and A. Braun (Eds.) 2003. Uniting Science and Participation: Managing Natural Resources for Sustainable Livelihoods. Earthscan, U.K. and IRDC, Canada.


Manuscripts submitted

Rogé, P., T. Diarisso, F. Diallo, Y. Boiré, D. Goïta, B. Peter, M. Macalou, E. Weltzien and S.S. Snapp. Future possibilities for perennial grain crops in the sorghum-growing region of Mali. J. Peasant Studies. Ms in review.

Isaac, K. S.S. Snapp, L. Butare, and J. Kelly. Genotype by cropping system interactions in climbing bean and maize associations in Northern Province, Rwanda. Field Crops Research. Ms in review.

Published or in press: 

Droppelmann, K.J., S.S. Snapp, and S.R. Waddington. 2017. Sustainable intensification options for smallholder maze-based farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Food Security 9:133-150, DOI 10.1007/s12571-016-0636-0

Li, G., J.P. Messina, B.G. Peter, and S. Snapp.  2017.  Mapping land suitability for agriculture in Malawi. Land Degrad. Develop., doi: 10.1002/ldr.2723.

Messina, J.P, B.G. Peter, and S.S. Snapp.  2017.  Re-evaluating the Malawian Farm Input Subsidy Programme.  Nature Plants 3. doi:10.1038/nplants.2017.13.

Mungai, L., S. Snapp, J.P. Messina, R. Chikowo, A. Smith, E. Anders, R.B. Richardson, and G. Li.  2017.  Smallholder farms and the potential for Sustainable Intensification.  Frontiers in Plant Science, doi: 10.3389/fpls.2016.01720

Rogé, P., T. Diarisso, F. Diallo, Y. Boiré, D. Goïta, B. Peter, M. Macalou, E. Weltzien, and S. Snapp.  2017.  Perennial grain crops in the West Soudanian Savanna of Mali: perspectives from agroecology and gendered spaces. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. doi:10.1080/14735903.2017.1372850.

Isaac, K., S.S. Snapp, K. Chung and K. Waldman. 2016. Assessing the value of diverse cropping systems under a new agricultural policy environment in Rwanda. Food Security 8: 491-506. doi:10.1007/s12571-016-0582-x

Isaac, K.B., S.S. Snapp, J.D. Kelly, and K.Chung. 2016. Farmer knowledge identifies a common bean ideotype for maize-bean intercrop systems in Rwanda. Agriculture and Food Security 5 (15):DOI 10.1186/s40066-016-0062-8.

Kane, D., P. Rogé, and S.S. Snapp. 2016. Perennial grains: A bibliometric and topic modeling analysis of existing literature. PLoSone 11(5).

Ortega, D.L., K.B. Waldman, R.B., Richardson, D., Clay, and S.S. Snapp. 2016. Sustainable intensification and farmer preferences for crop system attributes: evidence from Malawi’s central and southern regions. World Development 87: 139-151.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2016.06.007

Adebiyi, J.A., L. Schmitt Olabisi., S.S. Snapp. 2015. Understanding perennial wheat adoption as a transformative technology: Evidence from the literature and farmers. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. 31: 101-110. doi: 10.1017/S1742170515000150

Kurwakumire, N., R. Chikowo, S. Zingore, P. Mapfuma, Mtambanegwe, A. Johnston, and S.S. Snapp. 2015. Nutrient management strategies on heterogeneously fertile granitic-derived soils in sub-humid Zimbabwe. Agronomy J. In press.

Kane, D., Snapp, S.S. and A. Davis. 2015. Ridge tillage concentrates potentially mineralizable soil N in the crop row, facilitating maize N uptake. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. 79:81-88.

Petersen, B. and S.S. Snapp. 2015. What is sustainable intensification: Views from experts. Land Use Policy 46:1-10 doi:10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.02.002 [read more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]

Fisher, M. and S.S. Snapp. 2014. Smallholder farmers’ perceptions of drought risk and adoption of modern maize in Southern Malawi. Experimental Agriculture 50: 533-548.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0014479714000027

Snapp, S.S. and M. Fisher. 2014. Filling the maize basket supports crop diversity and quality of household diet in Malawi. Food Security Open Access. doi: 10.1007/s12571-014-0410-0

Chikowo, R., Zingore, S., Snapp, S.S., and Johnston, A. 2014. Farm typologies, soil fertility variability and nutrient management in smallholder farming in sub Saharan Africa. Nutrient Cycling Agroecosystems 100:1-18.  doi: 10.1007/s10705-014-9632-y

Kurwakumire, N., R. Chikowo, F. Mtambanengwe, Paul M., S. Snapp, A. Johnston, S. Zingore 2014. Maize productivity and nutrient and water efficiency across soil fertility domains on smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe. Field Crops Research 164:136-147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2014.05.013

Smith, R., Davis, A., Jordan, N., Atwood, L., Daly, A., Grandy, S., Hunter, M.,, Koide, R., Mortensen, D., Ewing, P., Kane, D., Li, M., Lou, Y., Snapp, S., Spokas, K., and Yannarel, A. 2014. Structural equation modeling facilitates transdisciplinary research on agriculture and climate change. Crop Science 54: 475-483.

Ollenburger, M. and S.S. Snapp. 2014. Model applications for sustainable intensification of African water-limited cropping systems in a changing world. Advances in Modeling. 5:375-398.

Snapp, S.S., R. Bezner Kerr, A. Smith, M. Ollenburger, W. Mhango, L. Shumba, T. Gondwe and G.Y. Kanyama-Phiri. 2014. Modeling and participatory, farmer-led approaches to food security in a changing world: a case study from Malawi. Scheresse 24:350-358.  doi: 10.1684/sec.2014.0409

Kadyampakeni, D.M., H.R. Mloza-Banda, D.D. Singa, J.H. Mangisoni, A. Ferguson and S. Snapp. 2013. Agronomic and socio-economic analysis of water management techniques for dry season cultivation of common bean in Malawi. Irrig. Sci. 31:537-544. doi:10.1007/s00271-012-0333-5

Gallaher, C. and S.S. Snapp. 2013. Organic management and legume presence maintained phosphorus bioavailability in a 17-year field crop experiment. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 30:211-222.

Culman, S.W., S.S. Snapp, M. Ollenburger, B. Basso and L.R. DeHaan. 2013. Soil and water quality rapidly responds to the perennial grain Kernza wheatgrass. Agronomy J. 105:735-744.  doi:10.2134/agronj2012.0273

Mhango, W. S.S. Snapp and G. Y. Kanyama-Phiri. 2013. Opportunities and constraints to legume diversification for sustainable cereal production on African smallholder farms. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 28:234-244. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742170512000178

Jaikumar, N., S.S. Snapp, K. Murphy, and S. Jones. 2012. A field assessment of the agronomic potential of two novel perennial cereal crops. Agronomy J. 104:1716-1726. doi:10.2134/agronj2012.0291

Lunduka, R., Fisher, M. and S.S. Snapp. 2012. Could farmer interest in a diversity of seed attributes explain adoption plateaus for modern maize varieties in Malawi? Food Policy 37:504-510.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2012.05.001

Snapp, S. S. M.J. Blackie, R.A. Gilbert, R. Bezner-Kerr, and G.Y. Kanyama-Phiri. 2010. Biodiversity can support a greener revolution in Africa. PNAS 107: 20840-20845.

Glover, J.D., Reganold, J.P., Bell, L.W., Borevitz, J., Brummer, E.C., Buckler, E.S., Cox, C.M., Cox, T.S., Crews, T.E., Culman, S.W., DeHaan, L.R., Eriksson, D., Gill, B.S., Holland, J., Hu, F., Hulke, B.S., Ibrahim, A.M.H., Jackson, W., Jones, S.S., Murray, S.C., Paterson, A.H., Ploschuk, E., Sacks, E.J., Snapp, S., Tao, D., Van Tassel1, D.L., Wade, L.J., Wyse, D.L., Xu, Y. 2010. Increasing food and ecosystem security through perennial grain breeding. Science 328:1638-1639. (plus response: Glover et al., 2010. Additional implications of perennial bioenergy crops: hydrology and climate. Science 330:33-34.)

Beedy, T.L., S.S. Snapp, F.K. Akinnifesi and G.W. Sileshi. 2010. Long-term impact of Gliricidia sepium intercropping and inorganic fertilizer on soil organic matter fractions in maize-based cropping systems. Agric. Ecosystems and Environment 138:139-146.

Sirrine, D., C. Shennan, S.S. Snapp, G. Kanyama-Phiri, and B. Kamanga. 2010. Agroforestry, risk and vulnerability in Southern Malawi: improving recommendations resulting from on-farm research. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 8:290-304.

Drinkwater, L.E. and S.S. Snapp. 2008. Nutrients in agroecosystems: Rethinking the management paradigm. Advances in Agronomy. 92: 163-186.

Nyiraneza, J. and S.S. Snapp. 2007. Integrated management of inorganic and organic sources in an Alfisol enhance nitrogen efficiency and productivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 71:1508-1515

Bezner-Kerr, R., S.S. Snapp, M. Chirwa, L. Shumba and R. Msachi. 2007. Participatory research on legume diversification with Malawian smallholder farmers for improved human nutrition and soil fertility. Experimental Agriculture. 43:437-453

Snapp S.S. 2004. Innovations in extension: Examples from Malawi. HortTechnology 14:8-13

Snapp, S.S., B. Kamanga, G.Y.Kanyama-Phiri. 2004. Experiences with participatory action methods in southern Africa: Can farmers adopt more legumes? Uganda J. Agric. Sci. 9:240-249.

Snapp, S.S., M.J. Blackie, C. Donovan. 2003. Realigning research and extension services: experiences from southern Africa. Food Policy 28:349-363

Snapp, S.S., R.B. Jones, E.M. Minja, J. Rusike and S.N. Silim. 2003. Pigeon pea for Africa: A versatile vegetable – and more. HortScience. 38:1073-1078

Snapp, S.S., G. Kanyama-Phiri, B. Kamanga, R. Gilbert and K. Wellard. 2002. Farmer and researcher partnerships in Malawi: developing soil fertility technologies for the near-term and far-term Experimental Agriculture 38:411-431.

Snapp, S.S., D.D. Rohrbach, F. Simtowe and H.A. Freeman. 2002. Sustainable soil management options for Malawi: can smallholder farmers grow more legumes? Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 91:159-174.

Snapp, S.S. and S.N. Silim. 2002. Farmer preferences and legume intensification for low nutrient environments. Plant and Soil. 245:181-192.

Snapp, S.S., V.D. Aggarwal and R.M. Chirwa. 1998 Note on phosphorus and genotype enhancement of biological nitrogen fixation and productivity of maize/bean intercrops in Malawi. Field Crops Research 58:205-212.

Snapp, S.S., P.L. Mafongoya and S. Waddington. 1998 Organic matter technologies to improve nutrient cycling in smallholder cropping systems of Southern Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 71:187-202.

Phiri, R.H., S.S. Snapp and G.Y. Kanyama-Phiri. 1999 Soil nitrate dynamics in relation to nitrogen source and landscape position in Malawi. Agroforestry Systems 47:253-262.

Phiri, A.D.K., G.Y. Kanyama-Phiri and S.S. Snapp. 1999 Maize and Sesbania production in relay cropping at three landscape positions in Malawi. Agroforestry Systems 47:153-162.

Snapp, S.S. 1998 Soil nutrient status of smallholder farms in Malawi. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 29:2571-2588.

Kanyama-Phiri, G.Y., S.S. Snapp and S. Minae. 1998 Partnership with Malawian farmers to develop organic matter technologies. Outlook on Agriculture 27:167-175.

Aggarwal, V.D., S.K. Mughogho, R.M. Chirwa and S.S. Snapp. 1997 Field based screening methodology to improve tolerance of common bean to low-P soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 28:1623-1632. [/read]


Snapp, S.S., R. Smith, and P. Robertson. 2015. Designing cropping systems for ecosystem services In: The Ecology of Agricultural Landscapes: Long-term Research on the Path to Sustainability. S.K.  Hamilton, J.E. Doll and G.P. Robertson (Eds). Oxford Press.

Robertson, G.P., S. Hamilton, K. Gross, D. Landis, S.S. Snapp, S. Swinton and T. Schmidt. 2015. Farming for Ecosystem Services In: The Ecology of Agricultural Landscapes: Long-term Research on the Path to Sustainability. S.K. Hamilton, J.E. Doll and G.P. Robertson (Eds). Oxford Press.

Chikowo, R., Zingore S, Nyamangara J. Bekunda M, Messina J, Snapp S.S. 2014. Approaches to reinforce crop productivity under water- limited conditions in sub-humid environments in Africa. In: Sustainable Intensification to Advance Food Security and Enhance Climate Resilience in Africa (Lal R, Mwase D, Hansen F, Eds). Springer. 235-253pp. [read more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]

Snapp, S.S., V. Ota, R. Bezner-Kerr, W. Mhango, L. Shumba, R. Msachi and L. Dakishoni. 2014. What is the role of crop diversity in ecosystem services? In: Malawi Ecosystem Services, R. Richardson, L. Zulu (Eds).

Dixon, J., M. Blackie, S.S. Snapp 2014 Maize mixed farming systems: An engine for rural growth

Grandy, A.S., C. Kallenbach, T.D. Loecke, S.S. Snapp, and R.G. Smith.. 2012. The biological basis for nitrogen management. In: T. Cheeke, D. Coleman, and D. Wall (Eds.), Microbial Ecology in Sustainable Agroecosystems, CRC Press

Wellard, K. D. Kambewa, S.S. Snapp. 2011. Farmers on the frontline: Adaptation and change in Malawi. In: Climate Change and Indigenous Knowledge. D. Brokensha, P. Castro and D. Taylor (Eds.). Practical Action Publications, Rugby, UK.

Bernsten, R. and S.S. Snapp. 2009. Sustainable agricultural development in developing countries. In: Critical Food Issues: Problems and State-of-The-Arts Worldwide. L. Walter and L.E. Phoenix, Praeger.

Snapp, S.S. 2008. Chapter 3. Agroecology: Principles and practice. In: S.S. Snapp and B. Pound (Eds.) Agricultural Systems: Agroecology and Rural Innovation for Development. Academic Press.

Snapp, S.S. 2008. Chapter 4. Designing for the long-term: Sustainable agriculture. In: S.S. Snapp and B. Pound (Eds.) Agricultural Systems: Agroecology and Rural Innovation for Development. Academic Press.

Drinkwater, L.E., M. Schipanski, S.S. Snapp and L.E. Jackson. 2008. Chapter 6. Ecologically based nutrient management. In: S.S. Snapp and B. Pound (Eds.) Agricultural Systems: Agroecology and Rural Innovation for Development. Academic Press.

Snapp, S.S. 2004. Scaling up through participatory designs. In: “Sourcebook on Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management: Volume 3.

Snapp, S.S. and E. Minja. 2003. Chapter 14. Integrated crop management experiences from Malawi. In: K. Maredia, D. Dakouo and D. Mota-Sanchez (Eds.) Integrated Pest Management in the Global Arena CAB Intl. Publishing, UK. pp. 157-167

Snapp, S.S. and K.L. Heong. 2003. Scaling up: participatory research and extension to reach more farmers. pp. 67-87. In: Pound, B. S.S. Snapp, C. McDougal and A. Braun (Eds.) “Uniting Science and Participation: Managing natural resources for sustainable livelihoods” Earthscan, U.K. and IRDC, Canada

Snapp, S.S. 2002. Quantifying farmer evaluation of technologies: The mother and baby trial design. pp.9-18. In: M.R. Bellon and J. Reeves (Eds.) “Quantitative Analysis of Data from Participatory Methods in Plant Breeding” CIMMYT, PRGA and IRRI, Mexico, DF. http://www.cimmyt.org/Research/Economics/map/research_tools/manual/Quantitative/quantifying_farmer.pdf

Snapp, S.S and D.D. Rohrbach. 2001. An ecosystem approach to Improving nitrogen efficiency: Lessons from Malawi and Michigan In: J. Galloway, E. Cowling, J.W. Erisman, J. Wisnieswki and C. Jordan (Eds.). Optimizing Nitrogen Management in Food and Energy Production and Environmental Protection. Second International Nitrogen Conference, A.A. Balkema Pub. Lisse/Abingdon/Exton/Tokyo.

Snapp, S.S. 1999. Phosphorus and sustainability of sub-Saharan Africa smallholder farms. pp. 59-72. In J.P. Lynch, J. Deikman (Eds.) “Phosphorus in Plant Biology: Regulatory Roles in Molecular, Cellular, Organismic & Ecosystem Processes” American Society Plant Physiol., Rockville, MD,USA.

Kumwenda, J.D.T., S.R. Waddington, S.S. Snapp, R.B. Jones, and M.J. Blackie. 1997. Soil fertility management in Southern Africa. pp. 153-172. In: D. Byerlee and C.K. Eicher (Eds.) Africa’s Emerging Maize Revolution. Lynne Publishers, Boulder, CO.

Jones, R.B., S.S. Snapp and H.S.K. Phombeya. 1997. The Use and Management of Leguminous Leaf Residues to Improve Nutrient Efficiency in the Sub-Humid Tropics In: Driven by Nature: Litter Quality and Decomposition. Wye College Univ. of London, UK.  [/read]

Technical Articles

Snapp, S.S., T.S. Jayne, W. Mhango, T. Benson and J. Ricker-Gilbert. 2014. Maize yield response to nitrogen in Malawi’s smallholder production systems. Working Paper 9. Malawi Strategy Support Program. IFPRI.

Bezner Kerr, R., L. Shumba, L. Dakishoni, E. Lupafya, S.S. Snapp, P.R. Berti, H. Nyantakyi-Frimpong, I. Luginaah, P. Nalivata, B. Kunkwezu, G. Kanyama-Phiri, A. Jones, M. Katundu, Z. Nkhonya, R. Msachi, A. Chitaya, E. Maona, T. Gondwe, P. Nkhonjera, M. Mkandawire, P. Kanyimbo, G. Gondwe. 2014. Farmer-led Climate Change Adaptation Strategies to Improve Food Security, Nutrition and Soil Health: Policy Recommendations, Proceedings of Climate Change Adaptation Policy Workshop, March 4, 2014, Lilongwe, Malawi.

Bezner Kerr, R, L. Shumba, L. Dakishoni, E. Lupafya, P.R. Berti, L. Classen, S.S. Snapp, and M. Katundu. 2013. Participatory, Agroecology and Gender- Sensitive Approaches to Improved Nutrition: A Case Study in Malawi. FAO Expert Meeting, November 2013 ‘Nutrition-Sensitive Food and Agriculture Systems for ICN+21.Abstract and full paper available online at: http://www.fao.org/food/nutritional-policies-strategies/icn2/expert-papers

Droppelmann, K.J. and S.S. Snapp. 2014. Sustainable intensification in Africa: A review of on-farm studies that assessed performance using multiple criteria. IFPRI Policy paper.

Snapp, S.S. 2014. Agriculture redesign through perennial grains: two case studies and next steps. FAO Convening on Perennial Grains Report, FAO, Rome.  [read more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]

Groot, J., C Klapwijk, C Timler, M Bekunda, T van Mourik, K Descheemaeker, P Tittonell, K Giller, S Snapp, B Vanlauwe. 2013. Rising to the challenge of sustainable intensification of agricultural production in Africa—Farming systems design to support action research for development. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium for Farming Systems Design, Lanzhou, China, 19-22 August 2013. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen University.

Phiri A.T., J.P. Njoloma, G.Y. Kanyama-Phiri, S.S. Snapp and M.W. Lowole. 2013. Effects of intercropping systems and the application of Tundulu Rock phosphate on groundnut grain yield in Central Malawi. International Journal of Plant and Animal Sciences, 11-20. http://internationalscholarsjournals.org/journal/ijpas/articles

Phiri, A.T., K. Wellard-Dyer, J.P. Njoloma, G.Y. Kanyama-Phiri, S.S. Snapp, M.W. Lowole, and W.G. Mhango. 2012. Farmers’ evaluation of integrated soil fertility management methods in Northern Kasungu, Central Malawi. J. Agric. Extension Rural Development 4:340-346. DOI: 10.5897/JAERD11.111

Mhango, W., S.S. Snapp and G. Y. Kanyama-Phiri. 2010. Doubled up legume systems. Extension fact sheet, University of Malawi, Bunda College of Agriculture.

Phiri, A.T., J.P. Njoloma, G.Y. Kanyama-Phiri, S.S. Snapp and M.W. Lowole. 2010. Maize yield response to the combined application of Tundulu rock phosphate and pigeonpea residues. African J. of Agric. Research. 5:1235-1242.

Blackie, M.J., S.S. Snapp and P. Thangata. 2009. The fertilizer subsidy puzzle: Linking the promotion of legume perennials and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol for a sustainable green revolution in Africa. Proceedings of the XXVII International Conference of Agricultural Economics, Beijing, China, 16-22 August, 2009.

Snapp, S.S., A. Ferguson, H. Mloza-Banda, C. Gallaher and K. Cichy. 2005. Beyond participatory bean breeding: a CANDO (Client, Agroecological Niche and Development Oriented) approach in Malawi. Bean Improvement Cooperative Vol. 47

Twomlow, S., J. Rusike and S. Snapp. 2002. Biophysical and economic performance: which reflects farmer choice of legume ‘Best bets’ in Malawi? CIMMYT Maize Program Annual Report, pp. 480-486

Johnson, N., N. Lilja and S. Snapp. 2002. Assessing the impacts costs of user participation in research on soil fertility management: The ICRISAT mother-baby trials in Malawi, p. 49- 74 Chapter 3. In: Johnson, N., N. Lilja and J. Ashby (eds.) Characterizing and Measuring the Effects of Incorporating Stakeholder Participation in Natural Resource Management Research: Analysis of Research Benefits and Costs in Three Case Studies. Working Paper No. 17, PRGA, CGIAR.  www.prgaprogram.org

Dimes, J., L. Muza, G. Malunga and S Snapp. 2001. Trade-offs between investments in nitrogen and weeding: Onfarm experimentation and simulation analysis in Malawi and Zimbabwe. In: Friesen DK, Palmer AFE (Eds) Integrated approaches to higher maize productivity in the New Millennium: Proceedings of the Seventh Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Maize Conference, 11–15 February, 2001. CIMMYT (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center) and KARI (Kenya Agricultural Research Institute). Nairobi, Kenya, pp 452–456.

Kamanga, B.C.G., G.Y. Kanyama-Phiri, S.S. Snapp. 2001. Experiences with Farmer Participatory Mother-Baby Trials and Watershed Management to Improve Soil Fertility Options in Malawi. Soil Fert Net Methods Working Paper No. 5. 17 pp. CIMMYT, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Kamanga, B.C.G. M. Robertson, S. Snapp and Z. Shamudzarira. 2000. Exploring sustainable production methods with smallholder farmers through modeling in Malawi. Natural Resources Management Paper No. 6, CIMMYT Mexico DF, Mexico, 14 pp.

Snapp, S.S., R.H. Phiri and A. Moyo. 1998. Soil fertility experimentation and recommendations for drought-prone regions of Zimbabwe and Malawi. Proceedings of the Risk Management Project Stakeholder Workshop, Oct. 1 – 3, 1997, Kadoma, Zimbabwe. CIMMYT and ICRISAT.

Kumwenda, J.D.T., S. R. Waddington, S. S. Snapp, Richard B. Jones, and Malcolm J. Blackie: Soil Fertility Management for the Maize Cropping Systems of Smallholders in Southern Africa: A Review. CIMMYT Natural Resources Group paper 96-02.  http://www.worldbank.org/html/cgiar/newsletter/Oct96/6soil.html

Snapp, S. 1999. Mother and baby trials: A novel trial design being tried out in Malawi. In: TARGET The Newsletter of the Soil Fertility Research Network for Maize-Based Cropping Systems Jan. 1999 issue, CIMMYT, Zimbabwe. [/read]


Waddington, S.R., S. Zingore, R. Chikowo, L. Wairegi, and S. Snapp. 2015. Integrated Fertilizer Policy Guide for Maize-Legume Cropping Systems in Malawi. Africa-RISING, Michigan State University, IITA, IPNI, CABI.

Snapp, S.S. and V.L. Morrone. 2014. Perennial wheat Michigan State University Extension Bulletin. E3208

Steinke, K. and S.S. Snapp. 2013. Climate change and soil management in field crops. MSU E3187.

Morrone, V.L. and S. S. Snapp. 2011. Building soil for organic and sustainable farmers: Where to start. Michigan State University Extension Bulletin. E3144.

Snapp, S.S. 2000. Cost-effective soil fertility management options for smallholder farmers in Malawi.  Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Gov. of Malawi and ICRISAT. [read more=”Read more” less=”Read less”]

Kanyama-Phiri, G.Y., Snapp, S.S., Kamanga, B., Wellard, K., 2000. Towards Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Malawi: Incorporating participatory approaches in agricultural research. Managing Africa’s Soils No. 11. IIED, UK. www.iied.org/drylands.  [/read]